Agricultural Activities of BIRBHUM District

Introduction                                                                                  

            Birbhum is an important district of “Rarh Region”  situated in the northern part of Burdwan Division of West Bengal. The district lies between 23˚-32’-30”and 24˚-35’-0” North Latitude and 88˚-01’-40”and 87˚-05’-25” East Latitude. The district is bounded by Murshidabad in the East and North-East, Burdwan in the South and South-East and Santal Parganas of Jharkhand in the West and North-West.

The district is spread over an area of 4545 sq. km. and is characterized by undulating topography. The land situation is gradually slopped down from the west to the flat plains appear in the furthest of the district.

Most of the rivers and rivulets originate from the Chhotonagpur hills, enter in to the western part and pass through the eastern direction of the district. The river Ajoy divides the districts Birbhum and Burdwan. The rivers Mayurakshi, Hinglow, Bansloi, Kopai, Bakreswar, Siddheswari, Brahamani, Dwarka etc. pass through different blocks of the district.

The area of the district lies under 3 Agro-climatic Zones of the State namely (1) Gangetic Alluvial Zone, (2) Vindhyan Alluvial Zone, (3) Undulating Red and Laterite Zone.

            (1) Gangetic Alluvial Zone: The alluvial soil is very deep, medium fine to medium texture, neutral to mildly alkaline in PH, calcareousness is significant in large section, base saturation moderately high, N, P status medium-to-medium low and K status is medium to high, external drainage medium to slow and internal drainage is moderate.

            (2) Vindhyan Alluvial Zone: Soil in general is deep in nature, texturally medium fine, mostly acidic in soil reaction and PH increasing with depth, external drainage medium, and internally moderate well-drained, ground water deeply placed, low in bases organic matter and phosphate (P), medium in potash (K).

            (3) Undulating Red and Laterite Zone: The region is primarily undulating with mounds and valleys and exhibiting different grades of laterisation process in soil formation.

Soil is normally well drained, susceptible to soil erosion due to rapid external drainage or runoff, soil reaction ranges from acidic in ridge and near neutral in valleys, base saturation, and organic carbon content, phosphate matter and potash are significantly low at ridge but increases down the slope especially at valley

Agriculture of the region is mostly rain dependent. Ground water is not easily and economically harvestable. Prevalence of moisture stress on standing Kharif crops during the late monsoon period is very common.

The Agro-climatic condition of the district is mainly influenced by the presence of a number of Rivers, Rivulets, Dams, and Barrages. The temperature varies from 12.7˚C to 28.3˚C in winter and from 25.5˚C to 41.5˚C in summer. The average rainfall is 1430 mm. the soil is generally acidic in nature.

 Land Utilization:

The total geological area of this District is 454500 ha of which 320610 ha (70.54%) is under cultivation.

Out of the total area under cultivation 54.58% area is covered by irrigation. There is Mayurakshi canal projects in the district. The main source of irrigation is ground water. Presently, there are 450313 no of farming families of which 359404 nos. belongs to marginal category, 63374 nos. belongs to small category,26236 nos belongs to semi medium,1290 nos. belongs medium category and rest 9 nos. belongs to large farmers category. Since more than 73% of land belongs to small and marginal farmers and average size of land holdings is 0.71 ha which becomes difficult for application of advanced technology in farmers field. Paddy is the major crop of this district which covers an area of 94% of the total cultivated area of the district during kharif. Other major crops are Oilseeds, Wheat & pulses, vegetables. The major cropping pattern of the District is Aman/ AusPaddy/Wheat/ Vegetable / Oilseeds/ Pulses/ Boro Paddy. Due to high dependence on chemical fertilizer and scanty use of organic fertilizer &FYM and unscientific cropping system, continuous pudding of soil, soil fertility is deteriorating day by day. On the other hand contamination of chemicals on all agril. produce and living organism is a serious concern. In order to over come this problems State Department of Agriculture has introduced several programmes like, Organic farming, Bio-village, Soil Health Management etc. and massive training programmes at different levels with the small and marginal farmers. The information on land use pattern of the district is given in table.

The main problems which hinder development of farming in this District are small land holdings, resurgence of insect pest, poor marketing facilities and on and often natural calamities like drought, flood, hailstorm and heavy population pressure on land etc. In order to minimize such constraints some measures have already been taken by the State Govt.

The ground water resource of the most blocks of this district has been overexploited and ground water level is declining day by day. Depletion of ground water table is really a serious problem to supply of water for drinking and for any agricultural production. As a result major emphasis has been given on rain water harvesting for which several schemes have been introduced (Block wise information on irrigated area has been represented in table.

Distribution of Land Holdings:

As per record in Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics clearly indicates that the number of holding under medium and large category have decreased significantly over time. This is due to policy of Land Reforms adopted by the State Govt. The average land holding size is also decreasing day to day. The following chart represents the number and area owned by different type of Agricultural Holding in the District of Birbhum

Distribution of Operational Holdings According to Size-class in the District of Birbhum

Category of farmers

Farmers Numbers

% covered

Area (Ha)

Marginal (0- 1 Ha.)

356526

79.17

141813

Small (1- 2 Ha)

69374

15.41

95144

Semi-medium (2-4 Ha)

23114

3.81

76998

Medium (4- 10 Ha)

1290

1.13

6215

Large ( more than 10 Ha)

9

0.002

440

Total

 450313

100%

  320610

Average size of holding

 

 

0.71

Agricultural labourers

607172

 

 

Share croppers

114286

 

 

 

Operational Structure   

 

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE BIRBHUM DISTRICT 

Sl No

Subject

Statistics

1

Geographical Area (Sq. KM)

4545

2

Total Population ( 2011 census,)

a) Male

b) Female

3502404

1790920

1711484

3

Total schedule Cast Population

a) Male

b) Female

1033140

                      529001

                      504139

4

Total schedule tribe Population

a) Male

b) Female

242484

119787

122697

5

Total Literate population

a)Male

b)Female

2158447

1201481

956966

 

6

Total Illiterate Population

a)Male

b)Female

1343957

589439

754518

7

Total Cultivators

a) Male

b) Female

260955

230925

30030

8

Total Agricultural Laborers

a) Male

b) Female

416949

281094

135855

9

Estimate of Operational Holdings

a) Marginal

b) Small

c) Semi Medium

d) Medium

e) Large

 

356526

69374

23114

1290

9

10

Total No of Blocks

19

11

Total No of Panchayat Samities

19

12

Total No of Gram Panchayat

167

13

Total No of Mouzas

2473

14

Total No of Inhabited Villages

2232

15

Total No of TV Units

1568

16

Total No of TV Circle

196

17

Total No of Government Farms

a) State Agricultural Farm,Suri

b) Model Farm, Ahmedpur

c) S.A.R.F, Md. Bazar/Bolpur/Rampurhat

d) Z.A.R.S, Nalhati

e) Block Seed Farm (Nanoor/Illambazar/Labpur/Mallarpur/Dhakalbati/Murarai-I/ Dubrajpur)

f) Sisal Plantation Farm, Rajnagar

14

01

01

03

01

07

01

18

No of Cold Storage

16

19

No of Krishak Bazar  Construction

11/3/8

20

No of Fertilizer sale Point (Private/Co-operative/Institutional )=1070 nos

820/250/0

21

No of Pesticide sale Point (Private/Co-operative/Institutional )=362 nos

345/17/0

22

No of Seed sale Point (Private/Co-operative/Institutional )      =149 nos

131/18/0

  DISTRICT PROFILE AT A GLANCE ON AGRICULTURE POINT OF VIEW 

Particulars

Area in ha.

Geographical  Area

454500

Area under  non-Agril. Use

91771

 Barren & uncultivable land

382

Permanent Pasture & other Grazing land

395

Cultivable Waste Land

3528

Fallow land other than current fallow

3360

Current fallow

143578

Forest Area

15853

Land under misc. Tree Groves not included in Net Area

1571

Net Cropped Area

320610

Gross Cropped Area

548724

Cropping Intensity

171.15

No. of operational Holding(2010-11)

450313

High land(Notionally Estimated)

75295

Medium land (Notionally Estimated)

174719

Low land (Notionally Estimated)

70596

Drought–prone Area(Notionally estimated)

75295

Flood-prone Area(Notionally Estimated)

21000

 Cropping Intensity of Birbhum District 

Year

Cropping Intensity(%)

2008-09

165.1

2009-10

154.94

2010-11

123.94

2011-12

161.88

2012-13

163.16

2013-14

165.43

2014-15

169.25

2015-16

171.15

 Soil Characteristics of Birbhum District 

Sl No

Soil Reaction Classes

% Area

Area in Ha

Remarks

1

Strongly acidic (PH <  4.5)

2.2

7053

 

2

Moderately acidic (PH 4.5--5.5)

48.4

155175

 

3

Slightly acidic (PH 5.5--6.5)

36.3

116382

 

4

Neutral (PH 6.5--7.5)

9.6

30779

 

5

Slightly alkaline (PH 7.5--8.5)

0.9

2885

 

6

Miscellaneous

2.6

8336

 

 

TOTAL

100

320610

 

View Soil Reaction (pH) Map [ Click ]

Cold Storage of Birbhum District

Sl No

Name  of Cold Storage

Location

Type of cold storage

Storage capacity (in MT)

1

Chajjer Cold Storage

Bagdola, Sainthia Block

potato

14000

2

Kanduri Cold Storage

Kunuri,  Sainthia Block

potato

14000

3

Birbhum Cold Storage

Purusattampur, Md Bazar

potato

18046

4

Dutta Cold Storage

Sainthia, Sainthia Block

potato

8380

5

Essar Del Com Cold Storage

Sainthia, Sainthia Block

Multi Purpose

2000

6

Baba biswakarma Cold Storage

Gamor, Nanoor Block

potato

10645

7

Uttar Ajoy Cold Storage(Co-Opt)

Muluk,Bolpur Block

potato

3200

8

Sarada Cold Storage

Gumta, Mayureswar-II Block

potato

5416

9

Satpalsa Cold Storage

Satpalsa, Mayureswar-II Block

potato

17083

10

Sree Kalimata Cold Storage

Narayanghati, Mayureswar-II block

potato

17843

11

Bokaria Cold Storage

Nimpur, Mayureswar-II Block

potato

4200

12

Haripada Cold Storage

Malancha, Mayureswar-II Block

potato

16100

13

Maruti Industries Cold Storage

Nalhati,Nalhati-I Block

potato

1367

14

Nalhati CADP Cold Storage

Indradanga, Nalhati-I Block

potato

9700

15

Dutta Brothers Cold Storage

Muraroi, Muraroi-I Block

potato

4963

16

Himalaya Multipurpose Cold Storage

Bahara, Mayureswar-II Block

Multi Purpose

1930

 

TOTAL

 

 

 =SUM(ABOVE) 148873

 Krishak Bazar (Kishan Mandi) by WB Marketing Board 

Sl.No.

Name of Govt. Farm

Address

Name of Block.

Remarks

1

Block Seed Farm, Rampurhat-II

Dhakalbati

Rampurhat-II

Completed

2

SARF, Rampurhat

Nischintapur

Rampurhat-I

Completed

3

Block Seed Farm, Mollarpur

Mollarpur

Mayureswar-I

Completed

4

Block Seed Farm, Murarai-II

Kasemnagar

Murarai-II

Completed

5

ZARS Nalhati

Nalhati

Nalhati

Completed

6

SARF, Bolpur

Bolpur-Sriniketan

Bolpur

Completed

7

Block Seed Farm, Nanoor

Nanoor

Nanoor

Completed

8

Block Seed Farm, Labpur

Labpur

Labpur

Completed

9

Block Seed Farm, Illambazar

Illambazar

Illambazar

Completed

10

State Agricultural Farm, Suri

Hatzanbazar, Suri

Suri-I

Completed

11

Block Seed Farm, Dubrajpur

StationMore, Dubrajpur

Dubrajpur

Completed

12

SARF, Md.Bazar

Md.Bazar

Md,Babzar

Completed

13

Model Farm,Sainthia

Ahamedpur

Sainthia

Completed

Warehouse by Food & Supply Dept. 

Sl.No.

Name of Govt. Farm

Address

Name of Block.

Remarks

1

SARF Bolpur

Bolpur-Sriniketan

Bolpur

Completed

2

Block Seed Farm Dubrajpur

Statio More, Dubrajpur

Dubrajpur

Completed

3

Model Farm, Sainthia

Jagannathpur

Sainthia

Completed

4

State Agricultural Farm, Suri

Hatzanbazar, Suri

Suri-I

Completed

 Maximum and Minimum Temperature by month in the district of Birbhum 

Centre : Suri

   (Degree Celsius)

Month

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Maxi

Mini

Maxi

Mini

Maxi

Mini

Maxi

Mini

Maxi

Mini

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

January

31

7

29

10

29

7

29

6

28

7

February

32

7

35

11

33

11

35

11

35

8

March

39

16

37

14

42

17

40

12

40

13

April

42

19

43

19

46

20

39

19

41

19

May

42

21

42

20

39

21

38

20

45

22

June

38

23

42

22

43

22

39

24

46

24

July

35

24

37

25

37

25

36

23

38

24

August

35

24

37

24

36

24

37

24

35

24

September

35

24

36

24

35

23

36

23

..

..

October

34

19

34

16

35

18

34

16

35

16

November

32

13

34

11

34

14

32

14

32

11

December

31

11

29

8

29

8

30

7

30

7

For the year

42

7

43

8

46

7

40

6

46

7

 Mean Maximum and Mean Minimum Temperature by month in the district of Birbhum 

Centre : Suri

 

(Degree Celsius)

Month

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Mean

Mean

Mean

Mean

Mean

Mean

Mean

Mean

Mean

Mean

Maxi

Mini

Maxi

Mini

Maxi

Mini

Maxi

Mini

 

Maxi

Mini

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

January

25

12

27

13

24

9

24

10

24

12

February

27

13

30

14

29

14

29

14

29

14

March

34

20

34

19

36

20

34

20

34

19

April

37

23

39

24

40

25

35

22

37

23

May

37

25

36

25

35

25

35

24

39

26

June

33

26

38

27

36

26

35

26

39

27

July

33

26

33

26

33

26

34

26

33

26

August

33

26

33

26

33

26

32

26

33

26

September

33

25

33

25

33

25

32

25

..

..

October

32

22

32

21

32

23

33

23

32

21

November

30

17

29

17

31

19

30

17

28

16

December

26

14

27

12

26

12

26

12

25

12

 ( Source:- BAES,2011-12, Govt. of W.B )

Climate and Rainfall of Birbhum District 

Sl. No.

Month

 Normal /AverageRainfall (In mm.)

Actual Rainfall

(in mm)

( 2008 )

Actual Rainfall

(in mm)

( 2009 )

Actual Rainfall

(in mm)

( 2010)

Actual Rainfall

(in mm)

( 2011)

Actual Rainfall

(in mm)

( 2012)

Actual Rainfall

(in mm)

( 2013)

Actual Rainfall

(in mm)

( 2014)

01

January

9.7

14.4

0

1.2

7.0

19.6

0.8

5.13

02

February

23.2

5.5

11.3

4.1

0.4

4.6

16.6

33.5

03

March

23.3

8.2

14.3

5.3

35.2

9.8

1.0

28.3

04

April

40.7

27.7

0

22.4

69.2

26.0

47.4

0.16

05

May

88.7

80.4

198.3

71.9

95.1

43.1

172.7

80.7

06

June

234.2

301.1

89.1

221.7

403.1

133.6

154.0

148.8

07

July

324.5

408.4

234.5

200.4

186.3

314.8

168.0

429.5

08

August

295.7

299.0

317.1

112.7

438.6

207.3

348.9

276.2

09

September

258.2

156.8

235.5

220.8

205.6

114.2

148.7

128.6

10

October

105.4

90.0

77.9

69.2

18.7

76.0

300.8

5.8

11

November

17.5

0.0

0.9

5.8

1.7

88.7

0.0

0.0

12

December

9.4

0.0

0

49.0

0.0

6.6

0.0

0.0

 

TOTAL

 1430.5

1391.5

  1178.9

  984.5

1461.0

  1044.3

  1358.9

 1136.69

  

Sl. No.

Month

 Normal /AverageRainfall (in mm.)

Actual Rainfall

(in mm)

( 2015 )

Actual Rainfall

(in mm)

( 2016)

01

January

9.7

5.60

60.0

02

February

23.2

9.30

26.90

03

March

23.3

30.4

16.30

04

April

40.7

91.20

19.70

05

May

88.7

69.8

144.70

06

June

234.2

304.0

220.40

07

July

324.5

695.56

348.00

08

August

295.7

289.2

335.60

09

September

258.2

113.2

357.70

10

October

105.4

37.4

37.10

11

November

17.5

4.26

Nil

12

December

9.4

3.5

 

 

TOTAL

  1430.5

  1653.42

 

 SOURCE WISE IRRIGATION OF BIRBHUM DISTRICT (HA)* 

Sl No

Source

Area in ’000 Ha

1

Canal

182.362

2

Tank

31.416

3

DTW & M.D.T.W

46.959

4

S.T.W

16.592

5

RLI

5.630

6

Open Dug Well

0.62

7

Other Sources

2.605

 

Total

 286.184

(*Source BAES 2012) 
LAND SITUATION (AREA IN Ha)
 

Sl No

Land Situation

Area in Ha

1

High

75295

2

Medium

174719

3

Low

70596

 

Total

 320610

 

IMPORTANT VARIETY CULTIVATED UNDER DIFFERENT CROPS 

Sl No

Crop

Variety

1

Aman Paddy

MTU-7029 , SS-I, MTU-1001,MTU-1010,IR-42,Pratiksha,GB-1,Sahabagi dhan

2

Summer Paddy

MTU-1010,IET-4786,GB-1,IR-64, IR-36

3

Wheat

HD2967,CBW-38,UP-262, PBW-343

4

Mustard & Rai

B-9,JD-6,PT-303,B-54,Pitambari

5

Potato

Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Pokraj,Kufri Chandramukhi

6

Lentil

Asha, Ranjan,Subrata,Subhendu ,Moitree

7

Gram

Anuradha, Bidisha,Mahamaya-I &II

8

Sesamum(Til)

Rama,Sabitri,Tilotamma

9

Moong

Samrat,Sonali,Panna,Pusa Bisal,k-851

10

Kalai

Kalindi,Sarada,Sulata,Goutam

 

Citizen Centric Activities 

Sl no.

Description

1.

Farmers’ Old Age Pension- Aged farmers and Agril Labourers above sixty years old are eligible. Monthly existing pension- Rs. 750.00

2.

Kishan Credit Card- Financial tool of farming community and enabling the farmers for credit facility in low interest rate from all type of banks and co-operative society.

3.

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojona (PMFBY)- Crop insurance scheme of all major crops, Govt. provides insurance premium except potato crop. This scheme is mean for crop insurance against damage of crops due to natural calamities like flood, drought, hailstorm etc.

4.

Awareness programme viz. environmental pollution, healthcare of farmers, stubble burning , pollution due to pesticide and fertilizer etc. for farming community of the district agains

5

Monitoring of Agril. Inputs at dealer’s point- collection of seed, fertilizer and pesticide samples and testing thereafter and vigilance over supply chain and price

  Development Activities and Projects Running: 

Sl. No.

Schemes/ Project

Activities in brief

1

Farm Mechanization,

Subsidized distribution of Power Tiller, Pump Set, Sprayer, Thresher etc

2

NMSA and Soil Health Management

Setting up of soil testing laboratory in the district and distribution of Micronutrients & Bio-fertilizer etc.

3

Crop Diversification through alternate crop plan

Supply of inputs for DC/Seed Kits of Pulses , Oilseeds, etc to increase their area,Production & productivity of crops

4

IPM

Farmers Field School, Supply of Bio-pesticides etc

5

Paramparagat Krishi Bikash Yojana & Bio-village Programme

Promotion of  Organic Farming

6

Soil Health Card

Collection of Soil Sample in Digital Mode and Preparation of Card as per soil test and distribution to farmer thereafter.

7

Sustainable Development of Sugarcane

Increase of Production and Productivity of Sugarcane through Demonstration Centre of  Sugarcane, Farmers Training, Establishment of Gur Mill etc.

8

SRI and  Zero Tillage

Transfer of New technology of Paddy and Wheat cultivation with economic use of water and agril. inputs

9

Farmers Training Programme

Skill Development of Farmers through  Training, Exposure visit etc

10

Dry land Farming

Transfer of New technology for  cultivation of different crops viz. pulse, maize, ground nut etc. in Dry land areas

11

I.S.O.P.O.M  renamed as NMOOP

 Supply of inputs for DC/Seed Kits of Pulses, Oilseeds, Maize etc, Farmers Training , Subsidized distribution of Sprayer, Thresher etc

12

Minikit Distribution

Supply of seed kit of different crops

13

Culture - Agriculture

Organizing  Krishi Mela, Group Meeting etc

14

N.F.S.M

Conduction of  DC, IPM, INM of Pulses, Farmers Field School etc.

15

 R.K.V.Y

To achieve 4% annual growth in agriculture by addressing in a holistic manner

16

BGREI

To increase production and productivity of Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Pulse and Oilseeds through Cluster Demonstration Centre by supplying critical inputs, Farmers Training, distribution of publicity materials etc.

17

ATMA.

Reforms in extension system by adopting bottom-up approach , public-private  partnership and disseminating of  information through single window system

18

Transfer of technology

Transfer of modern agricultural technology  to farmers through regular contact by extension personnel

19

PMKSY

Creation of Irrigation Facilities of the district and economic use of irrigation water

20

Seed Certification

Monitoring and production of good quality seed in private and Govt. Farms.

Soil Coverage & Other Details [ View ]

Forms
To Obtain Dealer’s Licence for Seed Business
To Obtain Dealer’s Licence for Insecticides
To Obtain Dealer’s Licence for Fertilizer

Contact Details
Deputy Director of Agriculture (Administration), Birbhum

Office Address : Old Collectorate Building

P.O- Suri, District-Birbhum

PIN- 731101

Phone No: 03463255281, E-mail- paobirbhum[at]gmail[dot]com